Tuesday, August 25, 2020

The Scientific Method Free Essays

The Scientific Method is a complex, yet straightforward procedure. It was intended to support researcher and consistently individuals who face issues think of a coherent and tried arrangement. As per creators Pruitt and Underwood (2006), The Scientific Method is characterized as â€Å"the set of methodology that structure the discerning way to deal with examining the characteristic world. We will compose a custom article test on The Scientific Method or on the other hand any comparable subject just for you Request Now † This strategy can be applied to something managing science or something that manages regular day to day existence. In the beneath passages, this author will clarify the logical strategy and how it was utilized to accomplish brings about an electronic trial just as a genuine circumstance. This essayist would start the electronic investigation by exploring and find why plants develop towards the light. When the consequences of the hunt are accumulated, this essayist would deliver a speculation. The conceivable speculation is; plants develop toward the light since it is a basic piece of the procedure known as Photosynthesis. This writer’s expectation is that if a plant is set to develop close to a window, the plant will lean toward the light. For the trial, this author would put three plants on a table with a window to one side of them and three plants on a table with a window to one side of them. Throughout three weeks, this author will watch and report the plants response to the light getting through the window. After cautious survey of the data reported, this author can securely presume that the plants with the window to one side of them, developed twisted toward the light and the plants with the window to one side of them developed bowed toward the light. This data underpins my speculation that plants develop toward the light to help with the Photosynthesis procedure. There were numerous issues that this essayist could have tried, however chose to test the most significant one of all. This writer’s little girl is at the phase in her life where she is removing her spoil, yet will not get potty prepared. What is causing this? Similar to different guardians and researchers, this inquiry originated from a difficult that required an answer. Through close to home experimentation just as data incorporated through auxiliary sources, this author concocted successful approaches to potty train their little girl appropriately. While watching the youngster, this author noticed that at whatever point the kid expected to utilize the washroom, she would fold her legs. After the youngster would get some kind of drink, around 20 minutes, she would again begin to fold her legs. It turned out to be exceptionally clear that the kid was extremely prepared to get potty prepared. Through these perceptions, this author created her theory. In the event that this author puts the youngster on the pot 20 minutes after she ingests any kind of drink, the kid will bit by bit become potty prepared. This essayist attempted this strategy for potty preparing for two days. During those days, the youngster did effectively utilize the pot at the occasions this essayist put her on it, yet the kid despite everything had mishaps on herself. With this data, this essayist presumed that their techniques were fruitless. This essayist investigated potty preparing methods to develop another theory. As indicated by the Mayo Clinic site (1998-2011), â€Å"when you notice signs that your kid may need to utilize the latrine, for example, wriggling, hunching down or holding the genital zone react rapidly. When the youngster effectively utilizes the latrine, there ought to be some kind of acclaim. A few people use stickers on an outline and others give uncommon treats, for example, candy or an additional sleep time story (Infant and little child wellbeing, 1998-2011). With utilizing these strategies just as removing all fluids that the kid gets at eight o’ clock each day, this essayist has discovered that the youngster has not made some day memories potty mishap in three days. Reliable observing of youngsters while effectively attempting to potty train is the most significant activity if victories are wanted. While potty preparing is no little accomplishment, each parent who handles this undertaking realizes that only one out of every odd parent is the equivalent and not all strategies work for each kid. This is something that will be found out on a made to order base. While the two examinations led are definitely unique, they are both comparable in the way that the two of them followed the Scientific Method. With a sound theory and a hunger for information, utilizing the Scientific Method will consistently give legitimate outcomes supported by science. References Potty preparing: How to take care of business. (1998-2011). Newborn child and little child wellbeing. Recovered on March 24, 2011 from http://www. mayoclinic. com/wellbeing/potty-preparing/CC00060 Pruitt, N. L. , Underwood, L. S. (2006). Bioinquiry: Making associations in science (third ed. ). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Stein Carter, J. (1996). The Scientific Method. Recovered on March 24, 2011 from http://science. clc. uc. edu/courses/bio104/sci_meth. htm Instructions to refer to The Scientific Method, Papers The Scientific Method Free Essays The procedure of the logical strategy is one that includes scrutinizing the thinking behind the outcomes. Every one of the means to scrutinize a planted aquarium was built under profound idea and individual encounters. The procedure of the logical strategy can apply to a logical report. We will compose a custom paper test on The Scientific Method or on the other hand any comparative theme just for you Request Now Remembered for this paper is the logical strategy for a planted aquarium and a genuine case of the clarification of how a plant reacts to light. With the plant either reacting to characteristic daylight or fake light and seeing which becomes the most beneficial. Beside the science hindsight, this can likewise apply to something that is utilized every day. Consequently, in cautiously making an examination one ought to have the option to acquire the aftereffects of their perceptions. These are the means that were gotten from the class site: Observation: Have you at any point seen in the event that you place a plant close to a window, that sooner or later, the plant develops or inclines toward the window? Question: Have you at any point asked why the plant develops toward the window? Theory: What reasons or factors would you be able to list that may make a plant lean or develop toward a window? For instance I think plants react to the light from which they assimilate some required supplement. Forecast: If the facts demonstrate that plants react to the light from which they retain some required supplement at that point grow three plants in the light and three plants in obscurity at that point see a distinction or alter in the course the plant is developing/inclining. Results: The leaves of the three plants in the light remained green while the leaves of the three plants in obscurity turned light yellow. To test this test I would initially attempt to make sense of if the plant reacts to the light or dull. I would attempt to get it far from the window first to see the response of the plant. At that point I would attempt to return the plant in the light and test to check whether the plant assimilates any supplements while in the light. Recording a speculation after each analysis would be advantageous to my trials so I can make certain of what is working best and attempt an alternate strategy if conceivable. I would most likely express that my speculation of the plant inclining towards the light is the thing that I would use as my expectation. Any kind of plant would lean towards characteristic light since they can ingest supplements that help them flourish. Substrate for planted aquariums can likewise be utilized as an enhancement for the plant, yet plants need light so as to keep up their shading. I would record and save my information for quite a long time so as to get appropriate outcomes. Estimating the temperature of the planted aquarium is likewise useful as most freshwater plants are tropical and carefully need a hotter aquarium to keep developing. Utilizing development equations and graphs can assist me with making a superior spreadsheet as a general perspective on the accomplishments of developing plants. In auditing the outcomes, I would have the option to acquire some conclusive outcomes about my perceptions. I would infer that perceptions were right when I anticipated that the plants would react to the light. I would then likewise test plants in various temperatures of water while removing some from the common light and leaving them in substrate in fake light. I feel that my speculations would demonstrate right if I somehow managed to leave the plants in common daylight and demonstrate that they need the glucose supplement to flourish. A genuine model was the point at which I worked at a pet store. Tropical freshwater plants were intended to have at any rate 12 hours of incredible fake light all together for the plants to endure. Light in some aquariums is suggested that it ought not be excessively ground-breaking as it might pull in green growth. Beside the light, they were given plant substrate and a few plants were not completely submersed into the water while others were. One day when the light over the plant tank that was holding all the plants went out, it was out for two days. The plants gradually began losing their leaves and the plants were yellowing on the grounds that they had no supplements from the light. At the point when we put the plants into the fish tanks, the plants gradually began to develop their leaves again and recaptured their shading. Taking everything into account, regardless of how you utilize the logical technique there will consistently be musings and thoughts that meet up thus giving the individual their outcomes. Keeping record of assembled thoughts to composing a speculation and afterward demonstrating your outcomes will prove to be useful and demonstrate that a specific strategy works. One ought to painstakingly design out what their arrangement is for an investigation so they can effectively demonstrate their outcomes. References http://www.sciencebuddies.org/tutoring/project_scientific_method.shtml Step by step instructions to refer to The Scientific Method, Essay models The Scientific Method Free Essays The logical technique is a speculation driven procedure of request. T

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Essay --

An unnatural weather change An unnatural weather change has become on of the most dubious issues in the media today. While the majority of the Western world nations have commonly acknowledged the reason that man's substance outflows in the air can and are influenced by the world’s atmosphere designs, in the United States, the issue has gotten so politicized with numerous republicans testing the science behind the hypothesis. A dangerous atmospheric devation is a nursery impact whereby gases are caught on the earth’s surface making it heat up (Maslin 14). It depends on the overall temperature records that have been kept up by people through their exercises since the 1880,s. Furthermore, an unnatural weather change isn't just brought about by human exercises just yet additionally through atmosphere changes in sun based brilliance. The issue is that, people keep on adding to the an Earth-wide temperature boost marvel. All residents should work in diminishing human exercises that cause an Earth-wide t emperature boost and furthermore bolster the advancement of atomic force. Researchers regard that, an Earth-wide temperature boost is chiefly brought about by human exercises which quicken the regular procedure by making ozone harming substances in the air. Human exercises have become an extraordinary commitment to the nursery impact and this implies atmosphere changes are inescapable. They further contend that, if these exercises proceed and are not decreased, it will prompt additionally catching of vitality emanated from the earth and this will probably prompt extraordinary climate and a dangerous atmospheric devation. A worldwide temperature alteration ought to be at diminished levels or something bad might happen, it will be cataclysmic. Climatologists are researcher who study atmosphere. The an Earth-wide temperature boost banter has made strain between atmosphere researcher and meteorologists particularly climate forecasters on TV. Climatolo... ...tarts creating more warmth than the cooling framework can cool, the whole force framework can fall flat. Media inclusion of such cases have made the open less alright with moving further towards atomic force and they just settle on decreasing human exercises to lessen an unnatural weather change. The facts confirm that there have been some eminent debacles including atomic force, however contrasted with other force frameworks, atomic force has a noteworthy reputation. To start with, it is less unsafe and second, it will have the option to provide food for the developing total populace. Atomic force creates clean vitality and it conveys it at a cost that is serious in the vitality showcase (Patterson). As indicated by the US Energy Information Administration, there are right now 65 such plants in the Unite States (National Research Council). They produce 19 percent of the absolute US vitality age.

Saturday, August 8, 2020

SAO to the OCS in the IAB COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

SAO to the OCS in the IAB COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog SIPA, like most organizations, is not immune to acronyms and slang.   The title for this entry might sound like a line from a rap song. It would not be uncommon to hear something like the following around our building: After I got out of my SAO appointment I had to drop by OCS to talk about my EPD project and integration of my APEA work.   Then I had to get to the penthouse of IAB and for my PMF meeting and you know what thats like during rush hour.   To top it all off, the elevator was lit up like a Christmas tree. Translation . . . After I got out of my Student Affairs Office appointment I had to drop by the Office of Career Services to talk about my Economic and Political Development project and integration of my Advanced Policy and Economic Analysis work.   Then I had to get to the 15th floor of the International Affairs Building and for my Presidential Management Fellows meeting you know what thats like during the change between classes.   To top it all off, every single button in the elevator had been pressed meaning we would have to stop on all floors on the way up. Speaking of OCS, they send out a weekly newsletter and here are just some highlights from the recent edition: OCS Highlights of the Week • Need help funding your internship abroad? Let OCS help you! See page 4 for more details. • Please share your employment news with OCS by using our new Report a Hire feature on SIPAlink. See page 3 for details. Dean’s Breakfast Series: Chris Osborne, CEO of Troika Dialog USA The Deans Office and the Office of Career Services announce the sixth in a series of breakfast and career conversations with prominent professionals. Please join us for breakfast and a career conversation with Mr. Chris Osborne, CEO of Troika Dialog USA, and Dean John Coatsworth on Tuesday, April 20, 2010 from 8:00 to 9:00am in 1501 IAB. Overseas Security and Abduction Prevention (OSAP) Seminar Back by popular demand, the SIPA Office of Career Services presents The MASY Groups Overseas Security and Abduction Prevention (OSAP) Seminar for students of International/Public Affairs, Business and Journalism who are destined for Iraq, Afghanistan and other conflict or high risk areas. Space is limited. The event will take place in the OCS Conference Room on Thursday, April 15, 2010, from 2:00 to 3:00pm.Register on SIPALink and please send a 50 word e-mail statement of need to: jpy2103@columbia.edu by Monday, April 12, 2010. Social Media: Networking to Advance Your Career Topics include: The differences between personal and business social media. Engaging your business network using social media. Business networking net-iquette. Wednesday, May 5, 2010 151 East 25th Street , 7th Floor (between Lexington and 3rd Ave.) Registration 5:00 PM To RSVP: Please go online to www.baruch.edu/spa and click on the event Sponsored by the Baruch College Alumni Relations Office, SPA Alumni Committee, and SPA Career Services Office. SIPASA Happy Hour, Sponsored by OCS SIPASA, OCS and the Alumni Relations Office invite you to your final happy hour on Tuesday, April 20, 2010. Come grab one last drink, network, and share your work experience and your future plans in NYC, DC, and beyond! In preparation for the happy hour, please provide us with any of your past experience and your career plan that you wish to share by completing the form through this link: http://www.sipa.columbia.edu/ALUM/networking Chris Hill MPA Internship Grant SIPASA is pleased to honor the life of former MPA student, Christopher Hill, with a scholarship fund for continuing MPA students undertaking public interest summer internships with government or nonprofit organizations. Christopher died in March 2000, while still studying at SIPA, after a courageous battle with cancer. Christopher’s friends and family created and funded the first year of the scholarship. MPASA fundraised to continue the scholarship in subsequent years. SIPASA took over this scholarship in 2007 with the merger of MPASA into SIPASA. The Dean of SIPA continues to match any funds raised by students for this scholarship.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

X the Influenced and Influential Generation Essay

There are many aspects of my generation that reflect, define, and influence my generation. Its a difficult task to understand Generation X, my generation. We are like no generation before us, and no preceding generation will be like ours. We are empowered by the Internet, we have more knowledge about technology than our parents, and we are exposed to so much information. One thing remains unchanged, as with past generation; the relationship between us and our parents. Jamake Highwater once said, the greatest distance between people is not space, but culture.(301) This is true, my generation has their own culture, one which is of course different than that of our parents. We are still considered rebellious. We listen to music†¦show more content†¦Most of them are indeed this way. Society and conditions that surround teenagers can shape them and mold them. They are impressionable and gullible. Their interests and upbringing can be the most influential factors of thei r lives. Friends of mine are adolescents, like myself. They have their own opinions. Some are more mature than others. Some are more gullible than others. Ill use two contrasting friends to show how one has been influenced and how my other friend hasnt been influenced that much. One Caucasian friend of mine wears hip hop clothes, jewelry and indulges in the hip hop culture. It isnt surprising to hear a mixture of Italian, Puerto Rican, and Egyptian DNA, recite rap lyrics, use slang, and claim to be gangsta. Afterall, he does attend a school in which, the majority of students are black. He thinks of himself as a player, a playboy, like most of the rappers do. He is conceited. He is my friend, but he is fake, fiction, a creation of society. Hes a Christian, but he doesnt attend church. The cross he wears on his chain is just for style. A factor in his life is the fact that his parents are separated. He lives with his grand parents, and they arent restrictive. Maybe he would have turned out different had his parents been together throughout his adolescence. My other friend is American Guyanese, he is black, but dislikes black people. He is not conceited, has a care free attitude, and is very secure. HeShow MoreRelatedMulti-Generational Workforce888 Words   |  4 Pagesof population diversity in the workforce. There are currently four main generations dominating the workforce, they are made up of Silents, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y. It is expected that in the coming decades there will be further changes with emergence of newer generations, and slower removal of older generations from organizations as pension age increases. Understanding differences between the generations, and learning to adapt their management practices is critical to buildingRead MoreMalcolm X And Mia Mckenzie1035 Words   |  5 Pages For years problems in society and ethics have existed in America, among these problems, many great thinkers have emerged, but two of the most influential of this century are Malcolm X and Mia McKenzie. Malcolm X was one of many civil rights leaders during the 1960’s, who alongside Martin Luther King Jr. was able to bring an end to the segregation laws of the United States. Mia McKenzie is an African American writer who has written countless books, and addresses the issues of racism, queernessRead MoreMalcolm X And The Civil Rights Movement1128 Words   |  5 PagesMalcolm X, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965, who was born Malcolm Little, was orphaned as a child. 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Winfrey was especially popular among women, Democrats, political moderates, Baby Boomers, Generation X, Southern Americans and East Coast Americans. She was without a doubt the youngest person and only the fifth woman ever to receive the honor in IRTS s 25-year history. Oprah amazingly then started her very first production called â€Å"HARPO†. MakingRead MoreThe Culture Of Los Angeles1275 Words   |  6 Pagesthe stage for a groundbreaking music scene that fused punk, country, and rock and roll. The plethora of clubs and dive bars in Hollywood meant that something was going on every night. As a result, the city became an incubator for influential and iconic bands including X, the Blasters, Los Lobos, the Germs, and the Bags. A three-dollar cover at the Whiskey A Go Go could get scenesters in to see shows ranging from the Sex Pistols to Patti Smith, or they could drive over to the legendary Palomino ClubRead MoreSteve Jobs : Technological Revolutionist916 Words   |  4 Pagesdrag-and-drop. Another desktop PC, the iMac was released in 1998. The iMac had the innovative all-in-one design that is used by iMac’s today. In 2001 Jobs released a next generation operating system known as Mac OS X. Mac OS X was inspired by NeXT, Job’s Unix-based operating system he developed independently. This next generation operating system appealed to windows users, persuading them to begin switching to apple computers. Sales soared in 2006 for Apple when they switched from PowerPC processors

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Symbolism in William Goldings Lord of the Flies

Symbolism in William Golding’s ‘Lord of the Flies’ Definition: A symbol is something that is itself as well as something else. In literature it means literal or objective sense coupled with abstract meaning. Symbolism refers to serious and extensive use of symbols in a work of literature. Symbolism in Lord of the Flies: The novel is rich in symbolism. A host of different interpretations of the novel’s symbolism – political, psychological and religious – exists. We will look at some of the prominent symbols employed by Golding and try harmonizing the different interpretations. Since symbolism is an evocative device to communicate the theme of a literary piece, we must first agree on the theme of Lord of the Flies. Theme: Evil†¦show more content†¦He makes the ritual sacrifice of a wild sow to the beast and lets the head of the animal hang on a stick, ostensibly to appease the beast. Only Simon does not believe in the existence of a beast. In his wanderings in the forest he comes across the head of the sow and the entrails of the animal which have attracted a lot of flies by now. He has a hallucination in which the head appears to him as lord of the flies and speaks to him. The symbolism of the beast is also stated in this imaginary conversation in so many words, as follows: â€Å"You knew, didn’t you? I am part of you?...I am the reason why it’s no go? Why things are what they are?† The beast is within man, not without. It is the darkness in men’s hearts. It is their primitive nature, hidden behind a thin layer of civilization. 6. The Signal Fire and the Shelters on the Beach: The signal fire and the shelters symbolize ordered society, civilization and hope. They are contrasted with the barbaric and blood-thirsty hunts. The signal fire is Ralph’s idea. He believes that the children will be rescued soon and therefore there should be a smoke signal going all the time for a passing ship to spot. Piggy, who is more of a realist, realizes that those who were expected to know about the children are all dead and it may be a long time before rescue comes. So he suggests the building of shelters. Though both symbols together stand for civilization againstShow MoreRelatedEssay on Symbolism in William Goldings Lord of the Flies1214 Words   |  5 PagesSymbolism in William Golding’s Lord of the Flies renders either through a character, intention, or theme. The author uses these symbols to have a greater impact on the readers’ interpretation of the novel, rather than merely revealing the idea. Fi rst and foremost, the beast and its several manifestations are few of the many signs that support deeper meanings. Furthermore, there is Piggy, one with intelligence and responsibility and one very important symbol. Finally, there are the two fires whichRead MoreLord of The Flies Essay1673 Words   |  7 PagesLord of the Flies was published in 1954 by William Golding. Today Lord of the Flies is a well known literary criticism. Many schools require their students to read Lord of the Flies because of the literary criticisms in the book. In this paper three themes or literary criticisms are talked about: good vs. evil, symbolism of characters, and maturity of characters. Another topic in Goldings Lord of the Flies is the battle of good vs. evil. Everything seems to start out just fine on the island; theRead MoreLord Of The Flies : Representation Of Violence And War1611 Words   |  7 PagesLord Of The Flies: Representation Of Violence and War Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a German theologian, states that â€Å" The ultimate test of a moral society is the kind of world that it leaves to its children.† In William Golding’s Lord Of The Flies, societal topics run rampant throughout the text with Golding’s use of individuals to represent different aspects of society. Many writers view the Lord Of The Flies as an allegory, as societal topics such as politics make appearances throughout the text. InRead MoreWilliam Goldings View of Humanity1383 Words   |  6 PagesWilliam Goldings View of Humanity Taking a post at the Maidstone Grammar School for boys and joining the Royal Navy, gave Golding his understanding of boys and cynical view of the war. William Golding says, the theme (of the book) is an attempt to trace back the defects of society to the defects of human nature... Goldings view of humanity is clearly displayed throughout Lord of the Flies. Through the constant symbolism we are made aware of Goldings pessimism towardsRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1745 Words   |  7 Pages1954 novel, Lord of the Flies by Nobel Prize-winner William Golding is a dystopian allegory indicative of vast aspects of the human condition. Set in the midst of a nuclear war, the text details a group of marooned British school boys as they regress to a primitive state. Free from the rules and structures of civilisation and society, the boys split into factions - some attempting to maintain order and achieve common goals; others seeking anarchy and violence. The novel is based on Golding’s experienceRead More Struggle Between Good and Evil in William Goldings Lord of the Flies1186 Words   |  5 PagesThe Struggle Between Good and Evil in William Goldings Lord of the Flies   Ã‚  Ã‚   Evil is not an external force controlled by the devil, but rather the potential for evil resides within each person. Man has the potential to exhibit great kindness or to rape and pillage. In the novel Lord of the Flies, William Golding deals with this evil that exists in the heart of man. With his mastery of such literary tool as structure, syntax, diction, point of view and presentation of character, GoldingRead MoreImportant Symbols in Lord of the Flies by William Golding676 Words   |  3 PagesIn William Golding’s novel Lord of the Flies, he uses unique elements to symbolize many concepts throughout the story. The two most important but differing symbols used throughout the novel are the Conch and Sow’s head symbolically used by the author to demonstrate the transition of good to evil as the darkness of savagery slowly begins to powerfully overtake the boys’ mental concept of their civilian nature that they were born into. Both symbolica lly represent a certain importance and power to theRead MoreThe Lord Of The Flies1468 Words   |  6 PagesThe Lord of the Flies tells the story of a group of English schoolboys marooned on a tropical island after their plane is shot down during a war. Though the novel is fictional, its exploration of the idea of human evil is at least partly based on Golding’s experience with the real-life violence and brutality of World War II. Free from the rules and structures of civilization and society, the boys on the island in Lord of the Flies descend into savagery. Golding’s experience in World War II had aRead MoreEssay on The Character Piggy in Lord of the Flies1368 Words   |  6 Pages68) The character Piggy in William Goldings novel Lord of the Flies serves as the intellectual balance to the emotional leaders of a group of shipwrecked British boys. Ironically, their new society values physical qualities over intellectual attributes whereas it is the rational actions that will lead to their survival. Piggys actions and the reactions from his fellow survivors foreshadow his eventual death. Lord of the Flies is overflowing with creative symbolism, surrounding every event andRead MoreWilliam Goldings Lord of the Flies Essay1255 Words   |  6 Pagesever since they were born, or would they disregard all of it and do as they please because there is no definite authority figure to tell them how to live. In William Goldings, The Lord of the Flies, he brilliantly tells a story of life and death and everything in between. His use of symbolism with the conch, beast, and lord of the flies is phenomenal. It is a story that makes you think. Every person, when faced with reality , may act civil now, but in a survival situation, human nature takes over

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Quality and Quantitative Approach in Engineering Free Essays

The objective of this paper is to propose a study and discussion on the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches in engineering research methods and design. In this introduction it is to provide a thorough presentation on the aspects of qualitative and quantitative approaches for engineering research. As such, the scope of this paper covers a broad range of topics and it is important that the engineer to perform successful experiments, and it is equally important that to understand and be able to estimate the accuracy of the engineering investigations through these approaches. We will write a custom essay sample on Quality and Quantitative Approach in Engineering or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the past research approaches in engineering have accumulated to a point at which the engineers and investigators have many selections. For those designing an engineering research proposal, it is recommended that a general framework be maintained to accommodate advice about all facets of the study, from assessing the general theoretical ideas behind the investigation to the detailed data collection and test procedures. Using an extant framework also allows engineering researchers to lodge their plans in design ideas well grounded in the literature and recognized by audiences that read and support the proposals for engineering research. The focuses in this paper are on the use of quantitative and qualitative approach and the comparisons and contrasts in the characteristics as well as the significances of these approaches within the field of engineering design research. 2. Background This section suggests the background and the framework of quantitative as well as the qualitative approaches for engineering research. The theoretical assumptions about what constitute the knowledge claims; the general procedures of research are the strategies of investigation; and detailed procedures of data collection analysis are called methods. . 1 Outline of Quantitative Approach to Engineering Research A quantitative approach in engineering is defined as one in which the engineer mainly employ postpositivist claims for developing knowledge. The knowledge are called cause and effect thinking, reduction to specific variables and hypothesis and questions, use of measurement and observation, and the test of theories. Quantitative appro ach employs strategies of analysis such as experiments and opinions, and collects information on predetermined instruments that yield statistical information. In this scenario the engineer tests a theory by specifying narrow hypotheses and the collection of experiment data to support or refute the hypotheses. An experiential engineering design is applied in which attitudes are assessed both and after an experimental treatment. The data are collected on an instrument that measures attitudes, and the information collected is analyzed using statistical execution and hypothesis testing. 2. 2 Outline of Qualitative Approach to Engineering Research. A qualitative approach in engineering research is one in which the engineer makes knowledge claims based primarily on constructivist perspectives and that is, the multiple meanings of individual experiences, meanings evidently and historically constructed, with intent of developing a theory or pattern, and that is issue-oriented or collaborative. It also uses strategies of investigation such as narratives, phenomenologies, ethnographies, grounded theory studies, and case studies. The engineer collects open-ended, emerging data with the primary intent of developing ideas and design from the data. In this situation the engineers seek to establish the meaning of a phenomenon from the opinions of participants. This means identifying a culture-sharing group and studying how it developed shared patterns of behavior over time (i. e ethnography). One of the key elements of collecting data is to observe participants’ behaviours by participating in their activities. For this research approach, the engineer seeks to examine an issue related to oppression of individuals. To study this, the approach is taken of collecting stories of individual oppression using a narrative approach. Individuals are interviewed at some length to determine how they have personally experienced feedback. 3. Comments and discussion Different form of investigations must be performed on all experimental data. The examination may be a simple verbal appraisal of test results or a complex theoretical analysis of errors involved in the experiment and matching of the data with fundamental principles. The discussion considers the analysis of data to determine errors, precision, and general validity of experimental measurements. The experimentalist should always know the validity of data. In order to specify the performance of an amplifier, an electrical engineer must know the accuracy with which the appropriate measurements of voltage and distortion have been conducted. A nuclear engineer must know the accuracy and precision of many instruments to make radioactivity measurement with confidence. In the quantitative approach like experiential analysis, design engineers have drawn on their own experience of designing to give explanation of aspects of design. Design researchers are also concerned about the lack of acceptance of their ideas by practicing engineering designers. By involving in the engineering research, it is more likely that the outcome of the research will be taken up because of the shared ownership of the knowledge produced by quantitative approach. On the other hand, in the qualitative approach, historical analysis is the discovery from past records a description of explanation for invention in the past. Scientists divide data into primary and secondary sources. Primary source include eyewitness and contemporary records such as instruction manuals and the personal notes. Secondary sources are summaries and reports of invention by other scientist or engineers. The role of historical analysis in qualitative approach is to provide theoretical base for the current research. Development in design due to the introduction of new technology can be compared to the development in the past. During the last decade, the strategies of investigation affiliated with quantitative approach were those that invoked the post-positivist perspectives. These include true experiments and less rigorous experiments. More recently, quantitative strategies involved experiments with many variables and treatments such as factorial and measure designs. They also included elaborate structural equation models that incorporated paths and the identification of the collective strength of multiple variables. The two critical strategies of investigation in the quantitative approach are test experiments and surveys. Experiments include authenticated test experiments, with random assignment of subjects to treatment conditions, as well as quasi-experiments that use non-randomized design. Survey includes using questionnaires and structured interviews for data collection to gather the feedback from the past records. In the qualitative approach, the experiment results those are usually rich and detailed, offering many ideas and concepts to inform consumers your new invention. Qualitative approach can display how the product user feel and think, but cannot tell how many of the audience feel and think that way. Qualitative approaches in research results are considered thought of as themes; they should not be reported as percentages, subjected to statistical analysis or projected to a wider population. The main reason is because the participants do not make up a randomly selected representative sample and not all participants are asked exactly the same. This approach offers flexibility as far as timing is concerned and exhibits an important challenge for engineering design. 4. Conclusion The following points can be considered and taking note when using the quantitative and qualitative approaches for engineering research: 1. Examine the data for consistency. No matter how hard an engineer tries, there will always be some data points that appear to be grossly in error. For instance, if adding heat to a container of water, the temperature must rise, and so if a particular data point indicates a drop in temperature for a heat input , that point might be eliminated. The data should follow common sense consistency. If many data points in the experiment fall in the zone of â€Å"inconsistent†. The entire experimental procedure should be investigated for gross mistakes and miscalculation. 2. Perform a statistical analysis of data. A statistical analysis is only necessary when measurements are tested several times. If this is the case, make estimates of such parameters as stand deviation or etc. 3. Estimate the uncertainties in the test results. The engineering researcher should bear in mind the influence of different variables by the time the final results are collected. 4. Anticipate the test results based on theory. Prior to obtaining correlations of the experimental data, the researcher should review the theory affiliated with the subject and glean relevant information that will indicate the trends the results may take. Critical dimensionless groups, pertinent functional relations, and other information may lead to a fruitful interpretation of data. 5. Correlate the data. The investigator should make sense of the data in terms of physical theories and on the basis of previous experimental work in the engineering field. The test results should be analyzed to display how conform to or differ from previous investigations or standard that may be employed for same measurements. In quantitative approach, the experiments are number-based whereas the qualitative approaches are text-based. Statistical test are used for investigation in quantitative method and more in-depth information on case study of a qualitative method for research in engineering. The main aim in the use of quantitative approach provides observed effects that are interpreted by engineers of a test program on a problem or condition whereas the main function of qualitative approach is more subjective and that is, solving a problem or condition from the point of view of the past experience. In conclusion, both quantitative and qualitative approaches are valid and reliable. However, the use of quantitative approach accounted largely for the measurement device and engineering instrument employed. This offers heavier time expenditure on the planning and lighter on the analysis phase. The use of qualitative approach depended largely on the skill and rigor of an engineer, and that allows the engineer a lighter time expenditure on planning end but a heavier during the investigation stage. How to cite Quality and Quantitative Approach in Engineering, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Minority Shareholders Corporations Legislation

Question: Discuss about the Minority Shareholders for Corporations Legislation. Answer: Introduction Shareholders oppressive acts could take place when the majority shareholders of an organization mis-utilize their authority and power to oppress the minority shareholders. One of the main purposes which state that oppression could take place when there was no ready market for the securities in an organization was done in the perspective of an unlisted proprietary limited corporation (Dundas Lawyers, 2014). It was clearly observed that the beginning of the concept of oppression be positioned within an anxiety to conquer the apparent lacunas of the common law in connection to the minority members. Yet, the concept of oppression was initiated and modified in order to prevail over the issues which were related with the common law rule of Foss v. Harbottle, and in specific, an opportunity to recover on behalf of the corporation could be granted to the minority stakeholders. It was also noted in above mentioned matter in which primarily the tribunals were vigilant in understanding the definition of the word oppression (Dundas Lawyers, 2014). In this case the inheritance was approached in general with the underpinnings of the official non- interference and the ruling of majority which was physically powerful. The above mentioned restrictions and suggestions were granted which stated that the section should be amended so that, beyond the simple concept of oppression, an employee of the corporation could protest. Under the verdict of a committee, such protest should state that the dealings of a organization were being carried out in a way that was wrongly detrimental to that interest of the employees of a corporation (Legal Vision, 2015). Section 233 and 232 of the Act As per the provisions of section 233 of the Corporations Act 2001, relief could be sought in most of the disputes of the shareholders for the allegations of the oppression done by them on the minority shareholders. This section grants that the tribunal may ask a corporation to be wound up by its order (Shand Taylor, 2014). Section 233 of the Act also authorizes the tribunal with certain powers in order to make any command that it deliberates proper in connection to a corporation in situations where the necessities of section 232 were encountered. That authority comprises of giving a verdict that a person buys shares of another party with a proper discount of the share capital of an organization or an instruction that the corporation be convoluted up (Zammit, 2016). Under section 232 of the Act the tribunal has the prudence to make such a verdict of: The conduct of an affair of the corporation; A definite or projected performance or lapse by a corporation; A declaration, or a projected determination, of the employees or a class of employees of a corporation; Contrary to the interests of the members as a whole; or Oppressive to, unfairly prejudicial to, or unfairly discriminatory against the employees whether they were in that capacity or in any other capacity. The inquiry measured here was whether unit holders of a unit trust could seek the similar relief as shareholders under those sections. The law in this respect was vague; therefore the significance of having a Unit holders Agreement or correspondent privilege in the unit trust deed (Bal Lawyers, 2016). The vagueness occurs as the jurisdictions of New South Wales and Victoria have taken dissimilar positions on whether unit holders could seek assistance under the domineering act sections of the Corporations Act, even where there was a corporate trustee (Australian Institute of Company Directors, 2013). This principle of oppression against the minority has been applied by the Supreme Court of Victoria to the performance of the trustee corporations in connection to the privileges and entitlements of recipients. In spite of this in other jurisdictions an opposite view was being adopted; in relation to this act one the conduct of trustee organizations were measured for the reasons of the statutory oppression remedy well within the legislative definition of the phrase affairs of a organization i.e. a body corporate (Craddock Murray Neumann, 2014). In the case of Vigliaroni v. CPS Investment Holdings Pty Ltd, it was clearly stated that where the act of domination transmits to the process of a trust which has a corporate executor in that case the tribunal was given power under section 233 of the Act. Under it the tribunal has a power to work out its wide-ranging authority such as to wind up a corporation in certain proper situations. It was done so that the remedy would definitely get rid of the issue of oppression and facilitate the causes of any prospect oppression to be evades (Farrar and Boulle, 2016). Furthermore, the provisions of sections 232 and 233 of the Act for the act of oppression were to be read generally. It was open to beneficiaries of discretionary trusts managed by a company trustee to seek this remedy. Similarly, in the ensuing Supreme Court of Victoria case of Wain v. Drapac and Ors [2012] VSC 156 (26/04/2012), the applicants were the managers of the respondents group as a result they were provided with certain units in the connected corporations. It was done as part of a decision-making enticement scheme. They suspected that they were enforced out of the corporation by means of oppressive behavior on the part of the principal of the respondent (Addison, 2013). The Tribunal also concluded that the defendants had acted in an oppressive manner towards the workers and have ordered the organization and the principal of the organization to buy the shares in units of the workers who were leaving on a fair price (Thomson Reuters, 2013). Section 232 (d) of the Corporations Act But once a person has recognized that the behavior in question relates to either section 232 sub clause a,b,c then such a person must also institute that it was either: Under sub clause (d) Contrary to the interests of the members as a whole as it was characteristically met in the cases where there was a contravention of the duties of the directors of an organization. The above mentioned ground for relief contained in s.232 would in general include those contraventions of fiduciary duty which directors was obligated to perform in relation to the organization: "Carelessness and contraventions of fiduciary duty of directors, even though those duties were obliged towards the organization and not the shareholders, but they were circuitously contrary to the interests of the employees as a whole. If the corporation has negative impacts then the investment of the employees could be hurt (Corporate First Lawyers, 2016). One anxiety in relation of this term was what could be the understanding which the judiciary would provide to the employees as a whole. Utilization of the conduct, ground for relief or act in question would be less and would be contrary to each and every person or member because: "The interests of the controllers as employees may be well served by their selfish way of performing. Consequently not all of the employees would be underprivileged. More likely those words mean that, where managers act for their own benefit only, then they would be seen to be acting contrary to the interests of members as a whole. Even if the act of the managers in the interests of the majority they would not, under this elucidation, be acting in the interests of employees as a whole (Harwood Andrews, 2016). It was presented by providing a corrective environment of legislation that the tribunal should accept this view. As this part of section 232 came into effect in its current form on 13 March 2000. It was documented as a different foundation for the tribunals to intercede from the oppressive ground in section 232(e) (Turner, 2014). In the matter of Turnbull and Ors v Nrma [2004] NSWSC 577 it was stated that a extraordinary general meeting of the employees of the corporation was requested under section 249D of the Act. Certain employees gave the notice of a resolution of the company they projected to move at the subsequent general meeting. Both cases took place out of a manufacturing dispute among the organization and its employees (Shaw, 2016). The dispute was resolved proceeding to the call which was made by the corporation for the particular meeting in reply to the request of section 249D. On the foundation that it would be contrary to the interests of the members as a whole, the tribunal implements its authority that states that: even though genuinely it was requested, but the corporation may not hold the meeting; and the authentically planned determination need not be put at the subsequent meeting of the organization (Lin, 2017). It was specifically confirmed that oppression does not unavoidably engage commercial injustice. In the matter of Australian Institute of Fitness Pty Limited v Australian Institute of Fitness (Vic/Tas) Pty Limited (No 3) [2015] NSWSC 1639 it was concluded that an action was competent of being contrary to the interests of the members as a whole in customs other than by being profitably partial. One of the examples of this could be being pointlessly extravagant. An act or error, or a projected performance or error, by or on behalf of the organization, or a declaration, or a projected declaration, of a class of employees of the organization, was or would be domineering or unethically detrimental to, or unethically prejudiced against, an employee or numerous number of employees or was or would be contrary to the interests of the members as a whole. The ASIC has stated in a report which was made under Part 3 of the ASIC Act that the tribunal was of opinion that it was reasonable and fair t hat the organization be wound up (Victorian Law Reform Commission, 2016). In the matter of ASIC v Storm Financial Ltd it was stated that a variety of individuals may apply for a command to wind up a corporation, such as the corporation, a creditor, a contributing person, the liquidator, ASIC. A winding up on the reasonable and fair ground was of a prehistoric origin under the provisions of corporate law, and the fresh request was founded on protection of the public interest (Australasian Legal Information Institute, 2016). Section 232 (e) of Corporations Act In order to establish shareholders minority of usage of an act of oppression and mismanagement, under section 232(e), an individual must also institute that it was Oppressive to, unfairly prejudicial to, or unfairly discriminatory against, a employee or employees whether in that capability or in another capacity capability (Holding Redlich, 2012). The idiom Oppressive to, unfairly prejudicial to, or unfairly discriminatory against was alarmed with the behavior of an individual that includes profitable injustice or, as mentioned in the matter of Re Ledir Enterprises Pty Ltd [2013] NSWSC 1332; (2013) 96 ACSR 1 that, a exit from the principles of fair dealing, or where a verdict has been made so as to oblige a drawback, disability or trouble on the applicant that, as per the normal principles of sensibleness and fair dealing, was inequitable. In the above mentioned statement the word Oppressive conduct has to be construed barely and centers on the character of the behavior rather than its impact. In the case of Re Jermyn Street Turkish Baths Ltd [1971] 1 WLR 1042 it was held that the word comprises of the conduct which require the quantity of decency which the employees were unrestricted to anticipate in the conduct of the affairs of a corporation (Gilbert and Tobin, 2016). In the matter of Wayde v NSW Rugby League it was stated that as reputes unfairly prejudicial or discriminatory conduct, merely prejudice or discrimination was not sufficient. So, the tribunal must decide whether a sensible board would have determined that it was inequitable to make that verdict. The tribunal would provide respect to the verdict of the board where there was nothing to propose injustice. It was also confirmed in this case that where there was a noticeable exit from the principles of justice the tribunal may itself be obligatory to make a decision where the equilibrium of opposing welfare lies (Trumble Szanto Lawyers, 2016). So, there have been a number of remedies for the burdened stakeholders as per which the tribunal has wide authorities to make any verdict which it believes to be proper if shareholders could prove that the performance of the affairs of an corporation was contrary to the interests of the shareholders as a whole, oppressive, unfairly prejudicial or unfairly discriminatory. Some of the instances of verdicts that may be proper were set out in s233 of the Act which comprises of the fact that: The organization could be wound up; Engaging a new receiver or a receiver and director; Preventing an individual from employing in particular conduct or from doing a specified act; and Necessitate an individual to do a particular act. Conclusion So, it was observed that the strategy behind sub-section 232 and 233 of the Act was to permit an subjugated stakeholder to be free from the corporation in the situations which were set out in s 232. Where a verdict was made under s 233 of the Act, the claimant must file a copy of the verdict with ASIC within 14 days after it was made. Therefore, it could be concluded that whether the laws in relation to the concept of oppression were dependent on the Corporations Act 2001 apply or dont apply have been regarded as an academic question. The benefit in having a Unit holders Agreement was that if the document was well organized, then there would be obvious privileges and duties on each of the individuals to recognize what conduct was or was not satisfactory, dropping or even getting rid of the opportunity of assertions of oppression and providing unit holders with a clear path out of the unit trust. If a trade was premeditated to be an speculation it should also be considered to be apprehended. References Aherns Lawyers. (2016) Statutory Oppression Remedy Under the Corporations Act 2001 (cth). [Online] Aherns Lawyers. Available from: https://www.ahernslawyers.com.au/latest-news/statutory-oppression-remedy-under-the-corporations-act-2001-cth/ [Accessed on 2/1/17] Victorian Law Reform Commission. (2016) The oppression remedy in the Corporations Act. [Online] Victorian Law Reform Commission. Available from: https://www.lawreform.vic.gov.au/content/3-oppression-remedy-corporations-act [Accessed on 2/1/17] Turner, R. (2014) Corporate Advisory Update April 2014. [Online] Gilbert and Tobin. Available from: https://www.gtlaw.com.au/corporate-advisory-update-april-2014 [Accessed on 2/1/17] Dundas Lawyers. (2014) Shareholder disputes the fight for control. [Online] Dundas Lawyers. Available from: https://www.dundaslawyers.com.au/shareholder-disputes-the-fight-for-control/ [Accessed on 2/1/17] Dundas Lawyers. (2014) Shareholder oppression. [Online] Dundas Lawyers. Available from: https://www.dundaslawyers.com.au/shareholder-oppression/ [Accessed on 2/1/17] Legal Vision. (2015) What is minority shareholder oppression?. [Online] Legal Vision. Available from: https://legalvision.com.au/what-is-minority-shareholder-oppression/ [Accessed on 2/1/17] Craddock Murray Neumann. (2014) Shareholder remedies minority oppression rules. [Online] Craddock Murray Neumann. Available from: https://www.craddock.com.au/Document/Shareholder+remedies+-e2-80-93+minority+oppression+rules.aspx [Accessed on 2/1/17] Shand Taylor. (2014) An Unfair Abuse of Company Power Oppression Claims by Shareholders. [Online] Shand Taylor. Available from: https://www.shandtaylor.com.au/publications/an-unfair-abuse-of-company-power-oppression-claims-by-shareholders [Accessed on 2/1/17] Australian Institute of Company Directors. (2013) Dont forget minority shareholders. [Online] Australian Institute of Company Directors. 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Available from: https://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1207context=blr [Accessed on 2/1/17] Lin, E. (2017) Shareholder oppression explained. [Online] Find Law Australia. Available from: https://www.findlaw.com.au/articles/4614/shareholder-oppression-explained.aspx [Accessed on 2/1/17] Australasian Legal Information Institute. (2016) Corporations Act 2001 - Sect 232. [Online] Australasian Legal Information Institute. Available from: https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/ca2001172/s232.html [Accessed on 2/1/17] Gilbert and Tobin. (2016) A changed and more risky management style does not necessarily result in unfairness or unreasonableness: KGD Investments Pty Ltd v Placard Holdings Pty Ltd [2015] VSC 712. [Online] Gilbert and Tobin. Available from: https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=6ad4f4f3-ecf1-4e82-bd7f-bb9249f12a35 [Accessed on 2/1/17] Corporate First Lawyers. (2016) Minority Shareholders have the right not to be oppressed. [Online] Corporate First Lawyers. Available from: https://corporatefirst.com.au/minority-shareholders-have-the-right-not-to-be-oppressed/ [Accessed on 2/1/17] Bal Lawyers. (2016) Oppressive Conduct Regime: Can Unitholders Take Advantage?. [Online] Bal Lawyers. Available from: https://ballawyers.com.au/2015/06/09/oppressive-conduct-regime-can-unitholders-take-advantage/ [Accessed on 2/1/17] Holding Redlich. (2012) Oppressed minority shareholders and appropriate relief - Is winding up a solvent company an extreme step?. [Online] Holding Redlich. Available from: https://www.holdingredlich.com/dispute-resolution-litigation/oppressed-minority-shareholders-and-appropriate-relief-is-winding-up-a-solvent-company-an-extreme-step [Accessed on 2/1/17] Addison, M. (2013) Stop that meeting! Court intervenes in meeting to remove director. [Online] Dibbs Barker. Available from: https://www.dibbsbarker.com/publication/Stop_that_meeting!_Court_intervenes_in_meeting_to_remove_director.aspx [Accessed on 2/1/17] Shaw, A. (2016) Unitholder rights to oppression remedies under Corporations Act. [Online] Robinson Gill. Available from: https://www.robinsongill.com.au/unitholder-rights-to-oppression-remedies-under-corporations-act/ [Accessed on 2/1/17] Trumble Szanto Lawyers. (2016) The office of trustee is a relatively unforgiving one. Equity is very protective of beneficiaries. [Online] Trumble Szanto Lawyers. Available from: https://www.tsz.com.au/content/remedies-dissatisfied-beneficiaries [Accessed on 2/1/17]